USA Lutino Gouldian Finch
Le Maistre Gouldians
LUTINO AND ALBINISTIC GOULDIANS 2012
(By Winnie McAlpin)
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
HOUSTON......WE HAVE A PROBLEM!!
After a discussion in 2007 with members of GPA102Mutations, I understand the following:
[There could be an unlimited number of different colored Gouldians with red or dark eyes, which would be classified as forms of albinism. Lutino is simply an avicultural term, but with a specific coloring and is caused by an allele of one of the two loci - sex-linked ino or NSL ino. Any new primary mutation is proven by demonstrating the mode of inheritance for a single gene, a combination of genes can produce the same colour but should not be described as a mutation.]
A Lutino Gouldian is often described visually as a Red Eyed, White Breasted, Yellow Bodied Gouldian. I prefer to use the term Red Eyed Gouldian rather than Lutino until the birds have been tested to identify a gene, or a combination of genes which has produced the coloring. The breeding method for the USA Lutino Gouldian is the same as the Budgerigar Lutino. A Budgerigar Lutino Breeding Chart is found at http://www.budgerigars.co.uk/charts/lutinoch.html
The USA Lutino is a different gene from that seen in Red Eyed Gouldians in Belgium, Japan and other countries. It has been suggested that the mutation in Belgium might be similar to the *pearly* Budgerigar. Since their origination around 1985, Lutinos and Albinos from Belgium were exported to European countries and arrived in the USA via Cuba by 2011.
In 2003, after a new line of Gouldian Inos surfaced, exportation from Belgium was expanded. Inos were shipped to various countries, including the Philippines. One Lutino female and two possible Split for Lutino males, which were imported to Philippines in December 2007, did not survive, leaving one Lutino female from the shipment. The breeder attempted to establish a line of Lutinos from the surviving female, but was not successful.
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The Gouldian Inos in Japan are produced from a combination of genes including the Fallow gene. I don't know of any having been exported, but some could have been extended into Europe as gifts. In 2005, I was sent photos of Red Eyed Gouldians in England, the result of a combination of genes, which possibly came from Japan, but the source was not revealed.
In 2005, it was reported that the Fallow gene in Japan was nearly extinct. However, it is possible that Japan presently has the Fallow gene, and the Ino gene, which originated in Belgium. In 2011, I received information stating that there was a waiting list for Fallow Gouldians, which were bred in Spain. It is possible that the Fallow gene does exist in countries other than Japan.
I was contacted in 2005, by a breeder in Cuba concerning Red Eyed Gouldians. Photos of the Inos in Cuba were sent to Daniel Wildemeersch in 2006. These Red Eyed Gouldians came from a combination of genes. The Cuban breeder stated that he intended to separate the Lutino gene if possible. The European Inos in Cuba show more darkness in coloring than other international Inos. In 2012, The Cuban breeder wrote that the Inos in Cuba are Dark Factor Inos. While this name could describe the head coloring, a Gouldian Ino can not carry a gene for both Dark Factor and Ino.
The USA Lutino, which originated in Tennessee, is unique because it has a pale pink breast rather than white. However, the retention of the breast coloring may also be the contributing factor for the lack of eye problems seen in some Lutinos from other countries. It is different in
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coloring than the Gouldian Inos produced in Belgium, Japan, England, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Israel, Spain, Cuba. The USA Lutino not only has different coloring from all other international Gouldian Inos, it is bred according to the Lutino breeding charts of all other bird species and not with mixed genes.
The GUIDE TO GOULDIAN FINCHES (2005) states that there are three Gouldian Ino genes, which produce Red Eyed Gouldians: The Fallow Gene in Japan, which is Autosomal Recessive; the European Lutino gene and the USA Lutino gene, which are both sex-linked. However, it is thought by some international breeders that there is only one Lutino Gouldian gene, other than the Fallow gene in Japan, existing in all international Gouldian Inos. If there is one gene producing all international Gouldian Inos, then an explanation is needed as to their different coloring.
Internet photos show the head coloring of European Inos, which originated in Belgium, displaying mostly tan and brown head coloring with white breasts. The USA Lutino gene produces Lutino Gouldians with bright Red and Yellow Heads, with the Black Head showing as white. Until 2012, the tan, the brown and the white head coloring on international Gouldian Inos had all been labeled as being Black Headed Lutino Gouldians.
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In July 2012, when comparing the beak coloring to the tan and brown head coloring on European Inos, I came to some conclusions. I am of the opinon that the white head color with a red tip beak is a Black Headed Ino. The light tan head coloring with the yellow tip beak is a Yellow Headed Ino. The darker brown head with the red tip beak is a Red Headed Ino. The white head with a yellow tip beak is a YTB Black Headed Ino. I posted a Chart showing these head colorings to GPA101Genetics on 7.23.12 and in the Delmar Photo Gallery.
In 2011, Gouldian Inos from Cuba, which orginated from Spain, were brought into the USA. Some USA breeders became concerned that these Inos were arriving by illegal methods because there has been an embargo bewteen the USA and Cuba since 1962. Some USA breeders also became concerned that the European Inos from Cuba, which looked like the international Inos, except darker in coloration, were the result of hybridization.
The European Inos from Cuba , which are presently bred in Florida, are a result of mixed genes. One of the genes in the genetic mix is the Pastel Green. This can be determined from photos of Pastel Green Split for Ino Males for sale on the Internet. The Pastel Green gene and the Pastel Blue gene have been used by international breeders to produce Gouldian Inos. The DF White Breasted Pastel Green Male has been used by international breeders in an effort to lighten the body and breast coloring.
International breeders of the Gouldian Inos, will no doubt have differing opinions and come to different conclusions. After sincere study, and corresponding with knowledgeable breeders, I have come to my own conclusion. I believe that the primary gene affecting the coloring on most European Inos does react like the Lutino Blue Faced Parrot Finch gene. However, whether this gene could have been the result of hybridization has not and may never be proven. Whether or not this gene was caused by hybridization will no doubt result in years of speculation.
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In July 2012, the first USA Lutino Breeding Chart was posted. The USA Lutinos are produced by breeding Lutinos to Green Goudians rather than the Pastel Green and Pastel Blue genes. When the USA Lutino becomes available on the public market, it will be bred according to genetic charts for Lutinos in other bird species. The USA Lutino gene will have not only been established, but also fully tested, while not placing birds with unknown genetics in the USA Gouldian gene pool.
Members at GPA101Genetics will contine to study and attempt to understand the coloring of the international Gouldian Inos. USA breeders and International breeders will form their own opinions, while studying their birds and comparing breeding results with other breeders. Hopefully this inquiry will one day reveal an answer and breeders will be able to improve the coloring of European Inos.
Information, photos and charts have been posted to GPA101Genetics in an effort to identify the Ino genes causing the different head and breast colors on international Gouldian Inos. To assist with the study of the coloring of the international Inos, I have posted a page on this web site as LUTINO HISTORY TIMELINE. I have also posted two charts and a photo at the bottom of this writing.
A Gouldian Finch, whatever color, from whatever genes, should be preserved in the best coloring and conformation possible. Learning more about Gouldian Ino genetics will allow us to achieve this goal and will allow future breeders to appreciate and enjoy Gouldian Inos.
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Edits by Winnie McAlpin
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This photo was received from a Cuban breeder on 7.11.12.
The European Inos in Cuba show more darkness in the body
coloring than other international Gouldian Inos.
Questions about USA Lutino Gouldian coloring should be posted to GPA101Genetics at
Winnie McAlpin at Gfinches2@aol.com
USA Lutino at Delmar Gouldian Av
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
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