USA Lutino Gouldian Finch
Le Maistre Gouldians
LUTINO AND ALBINISTIC PUBLICATIONS 2005-2013
(By Winnie McAlpin)
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
The Lutino appeared in Japan in late 1960's. Mr. Y. Miyake (Cage and aviary birds, 1999, May, p. 19) stated that a colleague obtained lutinos from a sem-professional breeder in 1967. He said that there were only about twenty in Japan at that time. He wrote: ‘The red-eyed Gouldian at this time had a wine coloured eye. The remaining birds suffered through inbreeding and many birds had a weak constitution. Most birds also had head tilt and feet problems.’
The fate of these early lutinos is unknown but lutinos currently being bred in Japan are thought to be descendants of stock imported from Belgium since 1992. Mr. Miyake quotes a colleague saying that the strain is also very weak.
Lutino Gouldians have been bred in Belgium for the past fifteen years. Their first lutino was a female bred from a normal pair of Gouldians. The owner was initially successful in breeding this variety, but after a few years encountered problems attributed to the inbreeding of his stock. All of his birds that were visual lutinos were lost. However, a few years later, female lutinos were bred from split males. These birds were mated with normal birds and two different bloodlines were established. The ensuing breeding program has been very successful. (Mr. Daniel Wildemeersch, pers comm. 2004) reported that there were forty lutinos in the fancier’s stud.
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The first lutino Gouldian reported in the USA was found in a group of 16 birds purchased from a breeder by Cindy Godwin from Gray, Tennessee early in August, 2002. Two weeks later it was sent on breeding loan to Winnie McAlpin in Cleveland, Tennessee (the Delmar Gouldian Aviary) with the aim of developing a successful breeding programme.
The initial pairing of the lutino female to a black-headed normal male in 2002 produced four juveniles: 1 black-headed single factor European yellow (pastel) split lutino male, and 3 black-headed normal females. This pairing has been maintained. In 2003, they produced another seven juveniles; 1 black-headed single factor European yellow (pastel) split lutino male, and 6 black-headed normal females. In 2004, they produced 11 juveniles: 4 black-headed single factor European yellow (pastel) split lutino males, and 7 black-headed normal females. These results indicate that the original mutant bird is in fact a lutino single factor European yellow female.
In 2003, the young split lutino black-headed single factor European split lutino male bred in 2002 was paired to a yellow-headed normal female. This pairing produced 1 lutino female possibly split for European yellow, 3 red-headed single factor European yellow (pastel) males possibly split for lutino, 2 single factor European yellow females and 2 normal black-headed females.
In 2004, the black-headed single factor European yellow (pastel) split lutino male bred in 2002, was paired to a red-headed blue female. This pairing produced 2 lutino split blue females, 3 red-headed single factor European yellow (pastel) split blue, and possibly split lutino males, and 2 normal red-headed males split blue, and also possibly split for lutino. It is planned to pair the lutino split blue females to blue males to eventually produce albinos.
Cindy Godwin also has a female lutino bred in 2003 from a red-headed normal split lutino male paired to a yellow-headed white-breasted female. This male was amongst the original 16 birds purchased in 2002.
McAlpin (pers.comm. 2004) has stated that she does not plan to breed birds together that are any closer than first cousins. The primary aim of her breeding programme is to ensure that lutino Gouldians remain a viable mutation in the U.S.A. She wrote (NFSS Bulletin,2004, July-August, p.6):
‘All of the lutinos which have been produced to date come from outcross matings. They are vibrant in colour, produce healthy offspring, and have good vision.’
It would seem, therefore, that even the problems concerning the lutino's vision are being overcome.>
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Quote from THE GUIDE TO GOULDIAN FINCHES, Published by ABK in 2005, and authored by Dr. Terry Martin, pages 99-100, as follows:
<JANPANESE 'RED-EYE' (FALLOW)
Communications with Japanese breeders indicate the presence in that country of a ‘Red-eyed’ Normal mutation for a number decades. However it has only ever existed in small numbers and has a reputation for lacking vigour. Photographs posted on a number of Japanese web sites confirm the existence of this mutation. The most obvious colour change is in the eye colour which is often described by breeders as being ‘whine-coloured’. There is also an overall reduction in melanin, resulting in a slightly lighter plumage colouration than Normal. These features, in conjunction with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, point to this being a Fallow mutation.
Perhaps unfortunately for this mutation, it has mostly been combined with other mutation, the aim being to produce a ‘Lutino-coloured’ bird. I say ‘unfortunately’ because it deserves recognition in its own right as a unique mutation that requires a concerted effort to establish in its pure form. And this problem has been compounded by the establishment of true Lutino mutations in both Europe and the USA. If the Lutino is imported into Japan and bred through the ‘Red-eyed’ birds, then it would be easy for the Fallow mutation to be lost for ever. There are reports that some ‘Red-eyed’ birds have been imported into the USA from Japan and it is hoped that breeders will recognize it as a unique mutation worthy of breeding it its own right.
As mentioned above, Japanese breeders have used the Fallow gene to create the first ‘Lutino’ and ‘Albino’ Gouldian Finches in the world, although the birds produced are only mimics of the true ‘single gene’ Lutino that is now established elsewhere. They did this by combining the Fallow, sex-linked Pastel and White-breasted mutations to produce a bird indistinquishable from Lutino. They then added the Blue mutation to produce a bird identical to Albino in colour.
The true sex-linked Lutino mutation has now been established independently in both Belgium and the USA. The European strain shows very slight retention of eumelanin primarily in the head region of Black-headed birds, while the USA strain shows slight retention of phaeomelanin primarily in the breast region of the plumage. In each instance it is not unexpected as no Lutino mutation is absolute in its loss of melanin. The body simply cannot function without at least a trace of melanin production. What is interesting two mutation are almost certainly alleles, but represent two separate mutations of the same gene is that these locus. Care will be needed in the future to ensure the independent survival of the two mutations.
Temptation may also exist to produce a ‘better’ Lutino through combination with other mutations such as the White-breasted for the USA strain and the Pastel for the Belgian strain. While there is no harm in this experimentation, it is important that the original mutations are not lost in their true identity and any combinations produced are correctly identified as combinations.>
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Quote from NATIONAL FINCH & SOFTBILL SOCIETY Volume 22, No November/December 2005. CREME DA LA CREAMINOS, authored by Christine Kumar, pages 26-27, as follows:
<LUTINO GOULDIANS: (Erythrura gouldiae) were first described as early as 1965, though they never seemed to gain in popularity like the other Gouldian mutations such as blue or yellow bodied 22. There are at least two populations of Lutino Gouldians, one in the USA and another in Europe. There is also a population of red-eyed Goulds in Japan. While I've not seen any of these birds personally, photographs available online reveal potentially different phenotypes between the various Gouldian Lutino mutations.
EUROPEAN LUTINO: 23 This sex-linked recessive mutation results in clear deeply colored yellow backed and bellied males. Hens are more pastel and reduced in their color intensity. Tail and wing primaries are approaching white. Their eyes are red. On the black headed (BH) Lutino Gouldian male, the head is not white but rather gray, similar in fact to the yellow bodied (YB) Gouldian mutation. The male also has a sky blue pencil line around his face mask which is indicative of eumelanin being present and typical for a single factored yellow back (SF YB).
There is some confusion about whether this particular male is also white breasted and/or yellow bodied. Regardless, persistent head pigments suggest that these Lutinos are still making some degree of eumelanin (black) pigment. Keep in mind that Gouldian back, belly and (in the case of red and orange heads) face mask feathers all contain carotenoids. Therefore, any single Gouldian Ino mutation which only affects melanin pigments could never result in a white or off white bird but rather a yellow one (please see 'Ground Color' discussion above). In order to achieve an Albino, the Lutino mutation would need to be combined with the blue bodied mutation (which prevents carotenoid deposition in feathers).
AMERICAN LUTINO:24,25 When I first saw photos of American bred Lutinos, I had to temper my excitement. I must say that the American Lutinos are simply some of the prettiest birds I've ever seen. I think it's the combination of their color coordinated ensemble, pink eyes and breasts along with lemon chiffon and pure white feathers that really attracts my eye. The BH mutation in the YB male is seldom clean. In fact, some people rather confusingly refer to BH YB goulds as Slate Headed. While I don't like this terminology,it does point out that many don't have clean white heads. The American Lutinos don't appear to have residual head melanins like the European Lutino or BH YB birds.
Also sex-linked recessive, these Lutino Goulds are very similar in appearance to the European variety. It's quite possible they are alleles of one another, or they may even be the identical mutation. However, there are at least two differences, which one can observe between the European and American Lutino phenotype.
1) The head is white, not gray. There doesn't appear to be any residual face mask or body eumelanin pigments.
2) The breast color is pink blushed.
Aside from the red or yellow tipped beak, these birds haven't any color in their beaks, making them appear colorless and very similar to the beak color found in Creamino or Albino Society finches. Unfortunately to date, only hen Lutinos have been bred. I remain very curious about what males will look like (particularly head and breast color), and until some are produced, it's hard to properly compare the European vs. American Lutinos.
Winnie McAlpin and the breeders of the American Lutino are currently working on producing an Albino Gouldian. Please see the July/August 2004 issue of the Journal of the National Finch & Softbill Society for more information on this mutation 26.
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JAPANESE RED EYED: 27 Like the two other Gouldian Lutino mutations, the Japanese version is also sex-linked recessive. These birds have red eyes however, and that is probably where the similarities stop. In order to produce Ino appearing birds, this mutation must be combined with others - principally the blue and yellow mutations. Presently, there is very little information available about the Japanese Lutino mutation. Some suspect this mutation is more likely Fallow than Lutino. The Fallow mutation also results in red eyes, however melanin pigments are converted from black to brown due to incomplete oxidation 8. Fallow Gouldians should have red eyes and brownish or olive colored feathers.
LUTINO BLUE FACED PARROT FINCH: another sex-linked recessive mutation, the Lutino Blue Face Parrot Finch (Erythrura trichroa) appears very similar in phenotype to the Lutino Gouldian since the BFPF is also a yellow ground bird. In fact, via molecular genetic analysis, the Blue Faced Parrot Finch (BFPF) appears to be the Gouldian's closest relative as determined to date 28. The Lutino BFPF has red eyes and a colorless beak. Their white head and wing primaries are perfectly offset by their lemon yellow back, belly and vent.
The rump and tail is red fading into white towards the tail tip. Yellow and redfeathers are much more intense in the male than the hen, with the male back color being an exquisite golden yellow. Lutino is currently the only bona fide BFPF mutation. All other feather morphs have unknown genetics and are still considered to be modifications or not genetically stable and heritable mutations.
Via hybridization and multiple backcrossing, the Lutino mutation may some day be available in the Red Throated Parrot Finch (Erythrura psittacea) as well. It is possible to make other Erythrura interspecific hybrids as well. This appears to be a common problem in Europe and this practice should not be encouraged.
While more readily available than the Gouldian Lutino mutation, the Lutino BFPF is not at all common. Experienced breeders may not let their known split or Lutino birds go to beginning aviculturists who are unfamiliar with BFPF housing and breeding requirements. In general, most Parrot Finches require larger accommodations. Small cages lead to fat birds, and obese birds typically do not breed well. Lutino BFPFs can suffer the same husbandry problems as encountered with Creaminos due to their lack of mouth markings (see 'Husbandry Issues' discussed above). Fostering Lutino chicks may be necessary.>
Quote from WIKIPEDIA 2013
<Captive breeding has resulted in several color mutations to the back and two mutations to the breast. Mutations vary by country, with some existing only in Australia (the Australian Yellow and the Australian "dilute") and others existing in greater number in the United States, such as the Blue bodied Gouldian. The most common body mutations in the United States are Blue, Pastel Green (Single and Double-Factor, resulting in "Dilute" and Yellow males and Yellow females), and Pastel Blue (again, Single and Double-Factor producing "Pastel" and Silver males, and Silver hens). There is also a Lutino and Albino mutation in the United States, established by Winnie McAlpin of Delmar Aviaries.  >
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Translated quotes from EXOTA OCTOBER 2013, INO MUTATION of AMADIN GOULDIAN (2), authored by Marek Buransky as follows:
<When there are interspecific crossings, certain selected characteristics are transmitted from one species to another species. Mutations which occur from interspecific crossings do not create pure mutations spontaneously. Therefore, in terms of genetics, we can not speak of pure offspring because they carry in their genetic makeup the characteristics of both species.
Although, in subsequent generations, (the more the better), mating within one species produces a phenotype virtually identical to the pure mutation. We can never talk about only the pure bred, if they came from interspecific crossings. The method for hybrids, to be kept in good shape and in good condition, should be mated from pure bred birds of the species, for which we have determined to breed. Pure bred individuals, however, lay not in the Gouldian Finch genotype Green bird, but the bird, in which the descendants or ancestors have been bred for several generations for one particular mutation.>
Ino Mutation in Gouldian Finch and Interspecific Crossings
<It seems that European breeders achieved in establishing an Ino Gouldian finch by graduated hybridization. The method consisted of using a hybrid of the Lutino Tri-Color Parrot Finch and Gouldian Finch. It seems that the Ino gene was originally from the Gouldian Finch and the Tri-color (Erythrura trichroa) with interspecific crossings.
The method consisted in hybrids from crosses by using the Lutino Gouldian of different coloration of heads, thus namely the classical and non-classical coloring of heads. The genome is the coding structure of feathers, and is found in the Gouldian Finch, ie. mainly as Yellow and Red, genome encoding of the structure of feathers, that are the Ino mutation of the Gouldian Finch as transferred from the Tri-Color Parrot Finch hybridization. This gene does not allow the normal coloration of feathers on the head of the Ino mutation of the Gouldian Finch.
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(Amadin...... the Tri-color (Erythrura trichroa, Blue-faced Parrot Finch) and Gouldian Finch or Choebia Gouldiae) have the same number of derived electrophoretic and chromosomal characters and should be assigned to one genus, Amada, [Swainson (1837)], is a senior synonym. But Christidis suggested that Amadina (Chloebia) should be retained as a subgenus to highlight the morphological difference between the Gouldian Finch and other members of the genus-Erythura. This means that there is the kinship between the Gouldian Finch and Amadin Tri-color in terms of genetics. Therefore, there occurs very close emergence of a viable, and what is more, a prolific hybrids. (Fidler)>
Occurrence - the Emergence of Innovative Mutations in Gouldian Finch
<In a previous article, I wrote about 4 lines of Ino mutaions in the Amadin Finch, for better understanding of this calculation I have repeated it in this section. My findings show that we now have access to the following lines of Ino birds:
1. Ino mutation, which is tied to the (Yellow) Pastel mutation ( gene e), with non-classical coloring of the head.
2. Ino mutation, which is not bound to the Pastel mutation (gene E), with non-classical coloring of the head.
3. Ino mutaton, which is tied to the (Yellow) Pastel mutation (gene e) with classic coloring of the head.
4. Ino mutation, which is not bound to the (Yellow) Pastel mutation (gene E) with classic coloring of the head.
Photos of feathers have confirmed that with this crossbreeding with the Gouldian Finch, a gene or group of genes, transfers a coding structure of feathers. It is evident that the structure of feathers is changed, and therefore, is not able to store carotenoids (Yellow and Red color). It seems that the Ino gene and the gene influencing the feathers, let’s call it (s), are relatively close in relationship. But the main production of the Amadin Finch are described in 1 and 2 paragraphs. Thus, we find no feathers as we know it in the Amadin Finch, but feathers, which were produced during hybridizaton. It is, therefore, a feather of hybrids.>
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Characteristics of Genes
<This character, which I called genome, is an auxiliary symbol in order to define split colored heads, namely the classical and non-classical coloring of heads. The genome is a coding structure of the feathers, as is found in Amadin Finch, ie mainly Yellow and Red, with a genome encoding the structure of feathers, that are the Ino mutation in Amadin Finch. This gene does not allow standard coloration of feathers on the head of the Ino Amadin Finch.
Whereas we do not know at the level of genes where it is actually happening this term, the "gene" of Mendelain genetics is a symbol in order to carry out calculations. In practice, it does not have to be a single gene, but may be an entire sequence of genes or gene interactions. Outwardly, however, this seems like a character and why I called for the purpose of calculating the genome. So I will continue to call it, in the absence of a detailed examination of the genome of these birds.
The genome with which it alters the structure of feathers appears to be a gene that is almost entirely in connection to the European Ino mutation. It can be assumed that the inactive Ino genome does not create binding. For these mutations were only the production of the Ino gene, but not with the present gene. These mutations may thus have the ability to create classic coloring on the head. The gene, which does not have it present and was tied to the Ino’s genome in bird populations, however, did not bring a change in structure, and thus has the coloration of feathers. Examples showing birds with classical and non-classical coloring are contained at the end of the article.
From practical experience, it is clear that they came to us by recombination, thus the Ino gene was transferred and tied with genome e or E, which are examples of mutation in 3 and 4. For these mutations were only the production of the Ino Gene, but not to be transferred gene with s. This mutation, therefore, have the ability to create classic coloring on the head.>
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Distribution and Characteristics
<The Ino mutation, in which there is a loss of dark pigment (eumelanin, pheomelanin), the birds have Red Eyes in the phenotype. The Ino mutation is divided into Ino sex-linked chromosomes, which is the Sex Ino Line (SL Ino) and the Ino mutation with unbundled sex chromosomes, with no ability to become hereditary autosomal, which is the Non Sex-linked line (NSL Ino). We are interested in just the first type, thus the recessive Ino bound to sex chromosomes, whereas this type of mutation is present in Lutino and Albino birds.>
Ino Bound No Sex Chromosomes - Sex-linked Ino (SL ino)
<The Ino mutation tied to sex chromosomes are grains of pigment, which are poorly knit and are significantly deformed. Unlike the NSL Ino mutation, it has reduced tryrosinase activity, but on the contrary, the activity is greater than in normal colored subjects. Therefore, this form of albinism we call a positive albinism. Pigment granules in SL Ino mutations are indeed black, but too small or severely damaged, and can vary as to the cellular layer, which can absorb light, with the result that interference will not occur, and therefore does not create Blue structural colored feathers.
-In the Green line, therefore, we see only a Yellow lutein and the individual is a Yellow coloring, talked about as the NSL Lutino (in the form of innovative Green line.
-In the Blue line, where the quill is not present as carotenoid (Leutin) in the combination, the Ino mutation becomes almost White in plumage, talked about as Albino (the form in the Blue line). Offspring from the NSL Ino mutation, like the SL Ino have light legs, beaks and Red Eyes. The legs show with pinkish greyish tinge. This mutation is easily detectable, provided that the males have at least one factor (allele) for production already in the first generation, ie in F1 we get a Lutino female.>
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Ino Mutation on Non-Sex Chromosomes - Freely Hereditary, Lying on the Autosomes - Non Sex-linked Ino (NSL ino)
<The Lutino gene mutation, Fallow (in Japan) , is one of the NSL Ino mutations, and does not have sex-linked chromosomes. This means that the males and females may transmit genes to the offspring. To make this mutation produce in the phenotype, 2 factors are needed (2 alleles) for production.
This mutation is characterized by the fact that it has almost completely blocked the formation of dark pigment- eumelanin. In this case it is called negative albinism. That is, it does not sufficiently synthesis pigmentation, the coloring of eumelanin. The feathers are storing colorless pigment granules. The offspring are produced by NSL Ino feather grains and almost in the normal amount, but remains colorless and are found in the cellular layer of the quill, which is not absorbed, so there is no interference, resulting in the absence of Blue (structural ) line of colored feathers.>
Lutino Mutation in Gouldian Finch
<It is a mutation of the Green wild type, in which there is almost a complete loss of dark pigments. Birds have a Yellow coloring with Red Eyes . This mutation has a recessive way of inheritance and is bound by no sex chromosomes (Sex-linked Ino). Grains of eumelanin, although colored to Black, are severely damaged and it’s very few. The hormone myosin save these grains to fledging.
Feathers, therefore, are not empty, but a phenomenon, there are only grains and those are damaged. The plumage is thus colored only Yellow lutein located in the quill cortex. The color Blue is changed practically to White. Whereas the dark colors are totally loss, the skin, beak and feet have a paler color and the eyes are stained in Red.>
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<The Albino mutation is a combination of Ino (Lutino) and Blue version. The Blue mutation arises by the reduction of carotenoids. It thus remains a dark eumelanin in the medulla, which activates the cellular coating, which gives a Blue color. Such Blues, paired with Lutino subjects, removes dark melanin from the plumage and eyes, as well as from other parts of the body.
If inasmuch as such, the subject has become absent of dark pigment in the cellular layer, the medulla becomes inactive and there is no structural formation of the Blue color. The result is therefore, an individual who has lost carotenoids, as well as dark color, followed by Blue and hence the structural colors. Coloration of the feathers is White with Red Eyes, with light feet and nails. The Red and Yellow heads have a pale cream tint, and the Black head as pure White in the phenotype expression.
I was acquainted with 4 lines of breeding Ino Gouldian Finch. In the two lines comes the standard color on the heads, meaning that the phenotype is seen as Yellow and Red, and in two cases, two lines produce just different shades of Cream to White. >
<The original article, which was dedicated to this issue, has 40 pages, and the magazine needed it to be shortened and thus it is not possible to include all of the details and explanations. Moreover, the whole problem with the Lutino Gouldian is complicated because mating can only be determined by me, the line breeder. As is clear for the above text, we are dealing with 4 small lines of Ino Gouldians.
Maybe with the efforts of each breeder, Inos with the standard coloring of the head (distinctive Red and Yellow) can be achieved as described in paragraph 4. I would rather preserve all 4 lines, for their diversity and certain tasks in the breeding history of the Ino Gouldian Finch.
The breeding of this mutation with any problems or albino bird is not easy breeding. Some of the lines are not yet sufficiently strengthened and may be demonstrating inbreeding for a specific trait.
These birds, because they have Red Eyes, are also prone to eye diseases. In the eyes there is error in the retina pigment and is directly exposed to ultraviolet light, which may in some of the offspring result in blindness. It is therefore necessary that the breeder of this mutation create a favorable environment for the birds.
It is necessary to continue to strengthen the breeding of this mutation and also unrelated Green birds, Blue birds and birds with good conformation and physique. It is desirable to establish a right environment and a diversity of genes, which guarantees strong breeding lines.>
Note: INO MUTATION of AMADIN GOULDIAN (2) is an excerpt from a 40 plus page document, which will be published in the future. Photos in Marek's article can be viewed at
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Winnie McAlpin at Gfinches2@aol.com
USA Lutino at Delmar Gouldian Av
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
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